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Fabric Glossary

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Afghans A coverlet or shawl of wool, knitted or crocheted in colorful geometric designs.
A machine-made domestic rug with Oriental design and colors to resemble a hand-tied Oriental.  Designs may be woven through to the back.  Moderately priced compared with hand-tied Oriental.
Angora Soft long hair of the Angora goat, often called mohair.  The animal is native to Anatolia in the Angora province of Turkey, but is extensively raised today in Texas by western ranchers.  Angora is classified as wool.  Sometimes angora is obtained from the fur of the angora rabbit.  Rabbit fiber is not classified as wool.
Arizona-Egyptian Cotton Cotton obtained from modified forms of Gossypium Barbadense and raised in Arizona, New Mexico, and Southern California.  Staple ranges from 35 mm. To 45 mm. and includes Pima cotton - extra long staple variety - also raised  in the area.  Other cottons in this group include SxP, Amsak, Pima 32, Pima S-1, and Supima, the latter a Registered Trademark of the Supima Association of America.
Batik Dyeing One of the oldest forms known to man; originated in Java.  Portions of the fabric are coated with wax so that only the un-waxed areas will take on the dye matter.  The operation may be repeated several times and several colors may be used for the rather bizarre effects.  Motifs show a mélange, mottled or streaked effect.  Imitated in machine printing.
Battenberg Coarse form of renaissance lace - either hand or machine made - from linen braid or tape and linen thread, assemble together to form various designs.
Beaded or Cut Velvet Velvet with a cut-out pattern or pile effect.  Often seen with brilliant designs and patterns.  Made on a Jacquard loom from a variety of fibers.
Bed-In-A-Bag® Bed-In-A-Bag® Includes:  Flat and fitted sheets, standard pillowcase pair, comforter, bed skirt and standard sham pair.  Twin has one pillowcase and sham, king and California king have king size pillowcases and shams.
Bedspread 1.  A usually decorative covering for a bed.  2.  A bed quilt; a counterpane; a coverlet. 3.  Usually, the dimensions of a bedspread are larger than either a coverlet or quilt - both in width and length - and a bedspread usually comes down to the floor and can completely cover the pillows on the bed.
Blends Combining of two or more types of stable fibers in one yarn to achieve color mixtures such as heather, unusual dyeing variations, or better performance characteristics.  Blends of natural and man-made fibers are more important today than ever before and their number is virtually limitless.
Block Printing The oldest form of printing known to man.  Motifs are obtained by the use of wooden, linoleum or copper blocks.  This hand operation is very tedious, production is very low, prices are rather high, and there has to be separate block used for each color chosen by the designer.
Boucle Knitted or woven fabric with characteristic looped or knotted surface that often resembles a spongy effect.  Term also applies to a variety of looped, curled, or slubbed yarns.  In French, " boucle' " means " buckled" or " ringed."
Broadcloth Tightly woven lustrous cotton cloth with fine imbedded crosswide ribs that resemble poplin.  Ribs are finer than those in poplin and broadcloth as more picks. Newest versions today combine yarns blended with polyester and other man-made fibers.
Brocade Rich Jacquard-woven fabric with all-over interwoven design of raised figures or flowers.  Name derived from French meaning to " ornament. "  Often gives an embossed appearance by contrasting surfaces, colors, and gold or silver threads on satin or twill grounds.  Made in many weights for apparel and decorative fabric uses.
Brushing A finishing process for knit or oven fabrics in which brushes or other abrading devices are used to raise a nap on fabrics or create a novelty surface texture.
Cambric Soft, white, closely woven cotton fabric calendered to achieve a high glaze.  Used mainly for pocket linings, underwear, aprons, shirts, and handkerchiefs.  Originally made in Cambrai, France of linen and used for church embroidery and table linen.
Canvas Cotton, linen, or synthetic fabric made with an even weave in heavy and firm weights for sails and industrial purposes.  Ada or Java Canvas is a still open weave fabric used for yarn needlework.  Awning strip canvas has painted or woven stripes on cotton duck.  Cross-stitch or Penelope canvas has still open mesh and is used for fine cross-stitched work.  Unbleached linen canvas is used mainly for interlinings.
Carding A process of opening and cleaning textile fibers - usually cotton - which separates fibers from each other, lays them parallel, forms them into a thin web, and then condenses them into a single continuous untwisted strand or bundle of fibers called a "sliver."  See Combed Cotton.
Cashmere Fine downy undercoat hair of the cashmere goat from Tibet, the Kashmir province north of India, Iran, Iraq, and southwest China.  Hair is cylindrical, soft, strong, and silken-like.  True cashmere is brownish in shade from 1-1/4 to 3-1/2 inches in staple length.  Diameter is 1/1600-inch.  Can be spelled in a variety of ways.
Chambray Popular variety of cotton fabric in relatively square count - 80 by 76 - that combines colored warp and white filing yarns in plain weave.  Name derived from Cambrai, French where it was first made.  May be carded or combined in stripes, checks, and dobby designs.
Chenille A fuzzy yarn whose pile resembles a caterpillar.  Used mainly for decorative fabrics, embroidery, tassels, and rugs.  Sometimes used broadly to define a fabric woven from chenille yarns.
Chino Classic all-cotton " Army twill " fabric made of combed two-ply yarns.  Usually vat dyed, mercerized, and Sanforized.  Used traditionally for army uniforms, chino is now finding popularity in fashion fields.
Chintz Glazed cotton fabric often printed with figurative and large flower designs.  Named from Hindu word meaning spotted.  Some glazes wash out in laundering, but others such as resin finishes are permanent.  Unglazed chintz is called cretonne.  Used mainly for draperies, slipcovers, skirts, and summer dresses.
Circular Knit Weft knit fabric made on a circular needle-bed knitting machine which produces fabric in tubular form.  Common types include single or double-knits.
Colorfast A term used to describe fabrics of sufficient color retention so that no noticeable change in shade takes place during the " normal " life of the garment.  Virtually all textile dyes are rated according to their color life span.
Combed Cotton Combing is a process for removing all short fibers (those less than 1-1/8") and impurities from cotton that has been carded.  Combed yarn is superior to carded yarn in that it is more compact and has fewer projecting fibers.  The finest cottons are made from combed yarns.  See Cotton for additional information
Comforter Set Comforter Set Includes:  Comforter, bed skirt and standard sham pair.  Twin has one sham, king and California king have king size shams.
Complete Bed Ensemble Complete Bed Ensemble Includes:  Flat and fitted sheets, standard pillowcase pair, comforter, bed skirt and standard sham pair.  Twin has one pillowcase and sham, king and California king have king size pillowcases and shams.
Corduroy A cut filling pile-cloth with narrow to wide wales which run in the warp direction and made possible by use of an extra set of filling yarns in the construction.  The back is of plain or twill weave.  Washable types are available, and stretch and durable press versions are very popular.  Usually an all-cotton cloth, today many corduroys are made with blends of polyester, nylon, or other fibers.
Cotton Soft vegetable fiber obtained from the seed pod of the cotton plant and one of the major fashion fibers in the textile industry.  Its origins date back to 3,000 B.C.  The longer the fiber, the better the quality.  Lengths vary from less than one-half inch to more than two inches.  Cotton is currently grown in some 19 states and is a major crop in 14 states.  The top four states in production of cotton are Texas, Mississippi, California, and Arkansas.  At the farm level, cotton was worth almost $3.7 billion in 1990 and more than $50 billion at retail, making it one of the biggest and most valuable industries in the U.S.  Annual production exceeds 12.2 million bales, each weighing about 500 pounds.
Coverlet 1.  A decorative bedspread (usually quilted).  A coverlet usually is smaller in both width and length than a traditional bedspread.  A coverlet drops over the edge of a bed, allowing the bed skirt/dust ruffle to "peek" out from under the coverlet to the floor.  A coverlet does not usually cover the pillows on the bed, but usually has matching pillow shams available for the pillows to lay atop the coverlet on a bed.  2.  The uppermost cover of a bed or of any piece of furniture.
Crocheting A fabric, trimming, or lace made by interlocking successive loops or stitches with a hook or needle.  In knitting, the entire series of loops that go to form one length, round, or circumference are retained on one or more needles while a new series is formed in a separate needle.  May be done by hand or by machine.
Damask Firm, glossy Jacquard-patterned fabric brought to the Western world by Marco Polo in the 13th century.  Damascus was the center of fabric trade between East and Wet; hence the name.  Damask is similar to brocade but flatter and reversible.  Used mainly for curtains, draperies, and upholstery.
Denim This basic cotton cloth - first brought to America by Columbus almost 500 years ago as the sails on the Santa Maria - is rugged, tough, and serviceable.  It is easily recognized by its traditional indigo-blue color warp and gray or mottled white filling, and its left hand twill on the face.  Coarse single yarns are used mostly, but today, many versions are available for the fashion world.  A two-up and one-down or a three-up and one-down twill may be used in the weave construction.  Long considered the most popular fabric for work clothes and army uniforms, denim today has won great fashion significance in dress goods for women's and men's wear, a wide range of sportswear, and even evening wear.  It is estimated last year American textile mills consumed some 1,150,000 bales of cotton to produce denim which was known centuries ago as " Serge de Nimes " from its early origins in Nimes, France.
Direct Printing Also known as roller, calender or cylinder printing; the colors are printed directly onto the fabric in the same manner as the printing of wallpaper or a newspaper.  There must be one roller for each color used and some machines can handle as many as sixteen colors.  Bleached goods are fed into the machine and pass between the color rollers and the master or main cylinder.  The color rollers are etched, each with the respective part of the entire motif that it will supply to make the completed design.  Most direct prints have a white background or base.  Chintz and cretonne are good examples of direct printing.
Doupion or Douppioni Silk thread made from two cocoons that have nested together.  In spinning the double thread is not separated, giving it a unique thick and thin appearance.  Used in making pongee, nankeen, shantung, and other fine silk fabrics where this characteristic look is so desired.
Down The soft fluffy under feathers of ducks, geese or other water fowl used for quilting fashion apparel or stuffing pillows, quilts, or cushions.  Down is very lightweight and warm.
Duck The name duck covers a wide range of fabrics.  It is one of the most durable fabrics made.  A closely woven heavy material.  The most important fabrics in this group are known as number duck, army duck, and flat or ounce duck.  Number and army ducks are always of plain weave with medium or heavy ply yarns; army ducks are the lighter.  Ounce ducks always have single warp yarns woven in pairs and single or ply-filling yarns.  Generally of ply yarns in warp and yarns of various sizes and weights in filling.
Dust Ruffle A gathered or pleated strip of cloth reaching from the bottom of a mattress or box spring to the floor.  A Bed Skirt.
Duvet 1.  A soft quilt usually filled with down 2.A quilt, usually with a washable cover, that may be used in place of a bedspread and top sheet.
Dying The process of applying color to fiber stock, yarn or fabric; there may or may not be thorough penetration of the colorant into the fibers or yarns.
Egyptian Cotton LinenSource offers certified Egyptian cotton, considered one of the world?s finest cottons. Sheets made from Egyptian cotton are softer, finer and last longer. Fine lustrous long staple cotton.  Several varieties - often brown in color.  1-2/5" average.  Used in U.S. for thread and fine fabrics.  See Cotton for additional information.
Embossing A surface effect achieved on fabric by means of passing cloth through a series of engraved rollers that impart figures or designs to its surface.  Rollers work through heat and pressure.
Embroidery Ornamental needlework consisting of designs worked on fabric with either silk, cotton, metalized, or other threads, either by hand or machine.
Eyelet A small hole or perforation made in a series to receive a string or tape.  Often worked around with a buttonhole stitch.  Applied especially to garments made of broadcloth, dimity, organdy, pique, and lace.
Felt From the Anglo-Saxon meaning to filt or filter.  The cloth is a matted, compact woolen material, of which melton might be cited as an example.  There are two types of felt cloth - woven and unwoven.  Woven felt is what is concerned with here.  The term may be misconstrued easily and not understood.  Felting is another form of the word when speaking of cloth being " felted. "  Felting of woven cloth is perfected by an interlocking of the natural, scaly serrations on the surface of the contiguous wool fibers through the agencies of heat, moisture, steam, pressure and hammering.  Some felted cloths have admixtures of hair fibers by agglutination.  Many types of overcoatings are correctly and incorrectly alluded to as being " felt."
Fiber Rug A floor covering made of tightly twisted strips of paper often coated with vinyl to resist friction and moisture.
Fiberfill Generic term for all stuffing fibers or materials used in battings, quiltings, sleeping bags, pillows, etc.
Flannel Usually a cotton or rayon fabric slightly napped on both sides to resemble woolen fabric used for some dress goods, blanketing, coating, etc.  Woolen and worsted flannels are also popular.
Gingham Fabric with dyed yarns introduced at given intervals in both warp and filling to achieve block or check effects.  The warp and filling may often be the same, even-sided, and balanced.  Color schemes range from conservative to gaudy, wild effects.  Textures are around 64 x 56.  Made from cotton, and cotton blends, wool, worsted, nylon, etc.
Grosgrain A heavy, rather prominent ribbed fabric made from plain or rib weaves according to various combinations.  The ribs will vary from a small number per inch to as high as 30 or 40 ribs to the inch.  Made with silk or rayon warp and cotton filling, the fabric is rugged, durable, and of the formal type; it is dressy and in place at formal gatherings.  It finds much use in ribbons,  vestments, and ceremonial cloths.
Heat Transfer Printing Newest method of printing fabrics by transferring designs to fabric from special pre-printed paper.
Jacquard Intricate method of weaving invented by Joseph J. J. Jacquard in the years 1801-1804, in which a headmotion at the top of the loom holds and operates a set of punched cards, according to the motif desired.  The perforations in the cards, in connection with the rods and cords, regulate the raising of the stationary warp thread mechanisms.  Jacquard knitting is a development of the Jacquard loom and its principles.  Jacquard fabrics, simple or elaborate in design, include brocade, brocatelle, damask, neckwear, evening wear, formal attire, some shirtings, tapestries, etc.
Jersey A plain stitch knitted cloth in contrast to rib-knitted fabric.  Material may be made circular, flat or warp knitted; the latter type jersey is sometimes known as tricot.  Used in dress goods, sportswear, underwear.  Gives good service and launders very well.  A very popular staple.  Some fabric of this name is woven.
Jute A coarse, brown fiber from the stalk of a bast plant grown in India.  Used mainly for burlap, cordage and as a backing for carpets and rugs.
Lamb's Wool Elastic, soft, resilient wool fibers, obtained from lambs when they are seven or eight months old - the first or virgin clipping from the animal.  This lofty stock is used in better grades of fabrics.
Linen Flax is the plant, linen is the product from flax.  The term, linen, cannot be used except for natural fiber flax.  Among the properties of linen are rapid moisture absorption, fiber length of few inches to one yard, no fuzziness, does not soil quickly, a natural luster and stiffness.  Uses of linen include tablecloths, toweling, crease-resistant linens, dress linens, doilies, runners, huckaback toweling, summer dress goods, sportswear, etc.
Madras One of the oldest staples in the cotton trade, it is made on plain-weave background, which is usually white; stripes, cords, or minute checks may be used to form the pattern.   Fancy effects are often of satin or basket weave, or small twill repeat.  White filling is used. Yarn counts range from 40s to 60s in warp and filling while textures approximate 100 warp ends and 88 picks.
Matelasse A favorite of decorators, Matelasse  (pronounced "mat-luh-say") is a special double cloth weave that creates a very soft and decorative textured effect. A rather soft, double cloth or compound fabric which has a quilted surface effect.  Made on Jacquard looms, the heavier constructions are used for coverlets, draperies, and upholstery.  Lighter weight fabric finds use in dress goods, evening wear, and trimming.  Matelasse gives effects such as blistered, puckered, quilted, or wadded depending on the cloth construction used.
Mercerizing A finishing process used extensively on cotton yarn and cloth consisting essentially of impregnating the material with a cold, strong, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) solution.  The treatment increases the strength and affinity for dyes and, if done under tension, the luster is greatly increased.  This latter phase is now considered to be the heart of the process although not a part of John Mercer's original patents, discovered by accident in 1844.  Mercerization is done in skein form, on the warp, or in the piece, either entirely or in printed effects.  Best results are noted in combed yarns.
Merino 1.  The highest, finest and best wool obtained anywhere in the world.  This fiber is used only in the best of woolen and worsted fabrics, billiard cloth, etc.  2.  In knitting underwear fabrics the term implies garments made from yarns spun with a mixture of wool, not necessarily merino in type, and cotton, all in varying blend percentages.
Napping The raising of fibers on the face of the goods by means of teasels on rollers covered with card clothing (steel wires) that are about one inch in height.  Action by either methods raises the protruding fibers and causes the finished fabric to provide greater warmth to the wearer, makes the cloth more compact, causes the fabric to become softer in hand or smoother in feel; increases durability an covers the minute areas between the interlacings of the warp and the filling.  Napped fabrics include blankets, flannel, unfinished worsted, and several types of coatings and some dress goods.  Other names for napping are Gigging, Genapping.  Teaseled.  Raised.
Olefin A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units.
Organdy Very light and thin, transparent, stiff and wiry cotton cloth used in dress goods, bedspreads, blouses waists, curtains, baby bonnets, doll cloth, millinery, neckwear, artificial flowers, etc.  Because of chemical treatment, organdy withstands repeated launderings and still retains its crispness.  May crush or muss, but is readily ironed back into stiff state.  Shadow organdy has a fine motif in self-color.  Organdy is a true, durable finish cloth.
Oriental Rug Hand-tied Oriental rug made in India, the Near East, or China.
Oxford Soft, somewhat porous, and rather stout cotton shirting given a silk-like luster finish.  Made on small repeat basket weaves the fabric soils easily because of the soft, bulky filling used in the goods.  The cloth comes in all white or may have stripes with small geometric designs between these stripes.  Now is made fro spun rayon, acetate, and other manmade fibers.  Oxford also means a woolen or worsted fabric which has a grayish cast made from a combination of black and white yarns or by use of dyed gray yarn.
Percale 1.  Dress percale is a medium-weight, printed cotton cloth with a firm, smooth finish.  Made from plain weave the texture is around 80-square.  Used for women's and children's dresses aprons, blouses.  Used interchangeably with the word, calico.  2.  Sheet percale is fine, smooth, lustrous, and highly textured with a count of 90 to 100 yarns each way for a total of 180 to 200 threads in the goods; a very high grade sheeting.  3.  Percaline is the name applied to a summer coat or suiting fabric made of cotton.  Usually piece dyed, it is given a glazed or a moiré finish.  Popular at times for boleros.
Persian Rug A hand-tied Oriental rug made in Iran.  Examples:  Kirman, Kashan, Shiraz, Tabriz.
Photographic Printing Photographic prints can be transferred to fabric by the use of photo-engraved rollers.  Various ways are used to obtain the result, all adapted from color-printing on paper.  Red, yellow, and blue, the primary colors are much used to obtain a host of color-effects.
Pole Top A channel running along the top of the curtain/drapery between the double sides of fabric that allows for a pole or rod to be inserted along the top for hanging.
Polyester A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid, including but not restricted to substituted terephthalate units, and para substituted hydroxy-benzoate units.
Poplin A broad term to imply several fabrics made from various types of yarn identified by a fine rib effect in the filling direction from the selvage to selvage.  Plain weave is used with the rib effect made by the use of a warp yarn much finer than the filling yarn with a texture or count of two or three times as many ends as picks in the goods.
Pre-Shrunk Fabrics or garments which have received a pre-shrinking treatment.  Often done on cottons to remove the tendency for cloth to shrink before cutting the fabric for use in a garment to prevent further shrinkage.  The percent of residual shrinkage must be indicated on the label of the goods or garments thus treated.
Primary Colors Red, yellow, and blue, from which pigments of these colors may be mixed to make many other colors.
Printing Producing patterns, designs or motifs of one or more colors onto fabric.  Several methods and techniques are used in printing and some of these are: Application Printing, Block Printing, Blotch Printing, Burn-Out Printing, Direct Printing, etc.
Pure Silk The Federal Trade Commission has rules that this term refers to silk goods, degummed and dyed together with the necessary finishing material except weighting.  Weighting of 10% is allowed for all fabrics with the exception of black where 15% is permissible.
Quilt A coverlet or blanket made of two layers of fabric with a layer of cotton, wool, feathers, or down in between, all stitched firmly together, usually in a decorative crisscross design.  2.  Also used for jackets and linings of coats.  3.  Also the sewing used to make a quilt.
Rayon A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, as well as manufactured fibers composed of regenerated cellulose in which substituents have replaced not more than 15% of the hydrogens of the hydroxyl groups.
Sailcloth Any fabric used for sails; usually a heavy and strongly made canvas of cotton, linen, jute, polyester or nylon.  Polyester now accounts for about seventy-five percent of the annual production.  A lightweight popular fabric in use at the present time is on the order of balloon and typewriter fabric and it is much used in spinnakers and head sails.  The cloth is finished around 40 inches and texture is around 184-square with a weight of about six yards to the pound.
Sanforized Registered Trademark of Cluett, Peabody & Co. for a rigid wash-wear quality performance program.  Fabrics are tested electronically to assure shrinkage, crease recovery, tensile strength, and tear strength standards are met.
Sateen This cloth is made with a 5-end of an 8-shaft satin weave in warp-face or filling-face effects.  Filling-face sateen requires a great many more picks than ends per inch in the goods while the reverse is true in the warp-face material.  Combed yarn sateen's are usually mercerized and have a very smooth, lustrous surface effect.
Schiffli Embroidery Originated in Switzerland, the word, Schiffli, means "boat," identifiable with the boat-shaped shuttle used in the frame.  The lace effect is made by embroidering the motifs on a net ground.
Sconce A decorative wall bracket for holding candles or lights.
Scotchgard Registered Trademark of 3M Co. for fabric protector finish that repels against staining from water and spills.
Scottish Plaid or Tartan A coarse, durable, rugged twill woven fabric made of native wool in Scotland in color effects of the many clans in Scotland.  Also obtainable in worsted and cotton fabrics, the materials come in many weights and widths.
Screen or Stencil Printing Silk, nylon or polyester is used as the screen in this work; it is spread over the frame which, according to the desired design, has portions of  screen surface covered or enameled by a coating.  Covered areas will not take on the dyestuff; the open areas allow the color to pass through the screen onto the fabric upon which the screen is set.  Color is poured into the frame shell and is applied to the fabric by means of a squeegee worked back and forth.  There has to be a frame for each color used.  The method is rather expensive, yardage is limited but there is a wide variety of design in this type of work.  Machine screen printing has become very popular and is fast and accurate.
Secondary Colors Green, orange, and violet each of which is obtained by the mixing of two primary colors.
Seersucker Lightweight cloth made of cotton, nylon, silk, and in blends of these fibers.  Two warps are used - a base warp which lies flat in goods and a warp that becomes crinkled in the goods because of chemical treatment provided for that purpose.  One warp weaves "tight," while the other one weaves "slack."  Much used in dress goods, bedspreads, curtains, etc.  Does not need ironing after laundering.  Plisse' is a simulated seersucker -  seersucker is durable, plisse' is not.
Sham A decorative cover made to simulate an article of household linen and used over or in place of it: a pillow sham.
Shantung 1.  A silk fabric very similar to but heavier than pongee.  Originally woven of wild silk in Santung, China, now often made with synthetics or mixtures.  Very popular for summer dresses and suits.  2.  A cotton fabric with an elongated slub filling yarn.
Sheet Set Sheet Set includes:  Flat and fitted sheets, standard pillowcase pair.  Twin has one pillowcase, king and California king have king size pillowcases.
Sheeting Plain-weave carded or combed cloth which comes in light, medium and heavy weights.  Sheeting for converting purposes is usually about 40 inches wide.  There are four types at present:  1.  64 x 64 (64-squae), usually made from 20s or 21s yarn.  2.  68 x 76, made from 25s yarn.  3.  84 x 92, made from 30s to 40s yarn.  4.  96 x 108, made from 40s yarn, upwards.  Sheeting comes in the following classifications - coarse, ordinary, lightweight, narrow, soft-filled, and wide.  It may be unbleached, semi-bleached, full-bleached, or colored.  Industrial sheeting serves as backing for artificial leather, boot and shoe lining, etc.
Silk The only natural fiber that comes in a filament form; from 300 to 1600 yards in length as reeled from the cocoon, cultivated or wild.  When the silkworm begins its spinning, two filaments are emitted from the "silk ducts" which are covered by SILK GUM or SERICIN from the sacks before they come from the mouth.  As the liquid is emitted by the silkworm it solidifies on contact with the air.  A single filament is called BRINS.  The two filaments are by this time cemented together by the silk gum or sericin.  A solidified filament is called FIBROIN or SILK.  The two filaments joined together produce what is known as the COCOON THREAT or BAVE.  Some foreign names for silk include Soie (French); Seide (German); Seta (Italian); Seda (Spanish); Sholk (Russian).
Single Knit A fabric knitted on a single needle machine.  This fabric has less body, substance, and stability when compared with double knit.
Sizing T = Twin Size.  Approximate size for Comforter, Duvet Cover is 66" x 86", Bedspread is 78"x108", Coverlet is 68"x94", Blanket is 66"x96".
F = Full size.  Full size.  Approximate size for Bedspread is 96"x108", Coverlet is 88"x94"Blanket is 80"x96".
FQ = Full/Queen size.  Full/Queen size.  Fits both Full and/or Queen size.  Approximate size for Comforter, Duvet Cover is 88"x96".
K = King size.  Approximate size for Comforter, Duvet Cover is 104"x96", Bedspread is 116"x118", Coverlet is 108"x98", Blanket is 108"x100". King shams approximate size is 20"x36".
Cal King = California King size.  Approximate size for Comforter, Duvet Cover is 104"x94".
E = Euro size.  Euro shams are approximately 20"x36.
S = Standard size.  Standard size shams are approximately 20"x26".
Slipcover A slipcover is a removable fabric covering that provides a quick and easy way to re-upholster and extend the life of your furniture.
Spandex A manufactured stretch fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polymer comprised of at least 85% of a segmented polyurethane.  The most important spandex today is DuPont's Lycra but there are others.
Supima Certification mark of the SuPima Association of America.  Usage of the mark is controlled by means of a licensing agreement with the Association, and the mark can be applied only to wearing apparel and textile products made entirely of Southwestern extra long staple cotton fiber grown by members of the Association.  About 4,000 members grow this irrigated cotton fiber from controlled seed in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and California.  The certification mark is written "SuPima."
Taffeta A fine plain-weave fabric smooth on both sides, usually with a sheen on its surface.  Named for Persian fabric taftan.  May be solid colored or printed, or woven in such a way that the colors seem "changeable."  Used for dresses, blouses, suits.  Originally of silk, now often made of synthetic fibers.  There are several taffeta classifications, such as:  Antique Taffeta, Faille Taffeta, Moire' Taffeta, Paper Taffeta, Pigment Taffeta, Tissue Taffeta.
Tapestry Originally ornamental Oriental embroideries in which colored threads of wool, gold, silk or silver were interspersed for adornment.  At present tapestry, for the most part, is power-loomed on dobby looms and Jacquard looms.  Hand woven tapestry is still made, of course, and in centers which were founded centuries ago.  Some distinctive tapestry designs or motifs are linked with names such as Arras, Aubusson, Beauvais, Brussels, Gobelin, Gothic, Lille, Savonnerie, and Verdures.
Tattersal A heavy, fancy woolen vesting of "loud appearance."  Checks, bold effects and gaudy color combinations are used in the material which is often used for suiting and overcoating, as well.  Named for the famous mart for thoroughbred and racing stock in London.
tc See Thread Count.
Thread Thread is made from yarn but yarn is not made from thread.  It is a highly specialized type of yarn used for some definite purpose such as sewing, basting, embroidery work.  Thread is plied to give it added strength when it is being manipulated.  Three-ply and six-ply thread are two of the common threads in use today.
Thread Count Thread count is a measure of how many threads are woven into a 1 square inch piece of fabric,essentially how much cotton is in a sheet. The combination of the quality of cotton, size of the yarn and weaving techniques determine the feel and quality of a sheet. Thread counts from 200 to 400 threads per inch create a soft and lighter weight billowy feel that can be woven into quality percale, sateen or twill weaves. Very high tread count sheets from 500 to 1000 threads per square inch create a stronger, denser sheet that is very smooth with less residual shrinkage. These sheets are heavier due to a larger amount of cotton per square inch.
Throws 1.  A light coverlet, such as an afghan.  2.  A scarf or shawl.
Toile 1.  General term used in France to designate vegetable fiber cloths made on plain or twill weaves, especially hemp and linen materials.  2.  Name given to tissue goods in which metallic threads are used to enhance the pattern-cloths of gold, silver, copper, etc.  3.  A type of handmade lace in which the body part of the pattern simulates woven cloth.  4.  The warp ends which form the ground in pile fabrics.  5.  Fine cretonne with scenic designs printed in one color.  6.  Some sheer cotton and linen materials are called toile.
Turkish Rug A hand-tied Oriental rug made in Turkey.  Examples:  Bergama, Ladik, Ghiordes.
Turkoman Rug A hand-tied Oriental rug from Turkestan.  Examples:  Bokhara, Beshire an Samarkand.
Ultrasuede Registered Trademark of Spring Mills Inc. for a microfiber luxury fabric.  Also called Ultra Suede.  Fabric is not woven or knitted and has tiny polyester fibers embedded in its soft lush surface.
Unbleached Many fabrics, especially cottons, come in an unbleached or natural condition.  Materials of this type have a sort of "creamy" or somewhat "dirty" white color cast and much foreign matter is often seen in them - burrs, neps, nubs, specs, et al.  These fabrics are stronger than full-bleached fabrics.  Examples of unbleached goods include canvas, duck, unbleached muslin.  Osnaburg, cretonne, sheeting, some toweling (cotton and linen) and some moleskin and comparable fabric used for pocket lining.
Velour 1.  A term loosely applied to cut pile cloths in general; also to fabrics with a fine raised finish.  2.  A cut pile cotton fabric comparable with cotton velvet but with a greater and denser pile.  3.  A staple, high grade woolen fabric which has a close, fine, dense, erect, and even nap which provides a soft, pleasing hand.  4.  A popular knit fabric similar to woven velour in properties, especially in hand.  Ideal for men's, women's and children's wear.
Velvet A warp pile cloth in which a succession of rows of short cut pile stand so close together as to give an even, uniform surface; appealing in look and with soft hand.  First made of all silk, many major fibers are now used in the constructions.  When the pile is more than one-eights of an inch in height the cloth is then called plush.
Voile Combed yarn, high-twist lightweight cotton staple fabric, also made from other fibers.  This threadlike appearing cloth is made from gassed yarns which range from 2/100s to 2/200s in yarn count.  There are five types of voile - pique, seed, shadow, stripe, and splash.
Washable Materials that will not fade or shrink during washing or laundering.  Labels should be read by the consumer to assure proper results.  Do not confuse with "wash-and-wear."
Wash-And-Wear Ability of a garment to be washed by hand or in a washing machine and require no ironing.  In common usage, drip-dried garments do not retain creases or pleats and recover sufficiently from wrinkles to need little, if any ironing.
Yarn Dyeing Yarn which has been dyed prior to the weaving of the goods; follows spinning of the yarn. May be done in either total immersion or partial immersion of the yarn.

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